ADHD (Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders affecting children. ADHD also affects many adults. Symptoms of ADHD include inattention (not being able to keep focus), hyperactivity (excess movement that is not fitting to the setting) and impulsivity (hasty acts that occur in the moment without thought).1

ADHD is often first identified in school-aged children when it leads to disruption in the classroom or problems with schoolwork. It is more common among boys than girls.1 
The prevalence of ADHD in Thailand was 8.1%. The prevalence in boy (12%) was substantially higher than girl (4.2%).2

Jumping kids holding hands


Treatment of this condition should include a multi-modal approach, involving parent education, psychological interventions, educational intervention, and appropriate use of medications.3

Stimulant medications (methylphenidate) are highly effective treatments that have been safely used for decades. Two non-stimulant medications (atomoxetine and guanfacine) have also been shown to be effective in treating ADHD symptoms. These medications are alternatives for those who do not respond well to stimulants or if a non-stimulant is preferred.1

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) and the Canadian Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Resource Alliance (CADDRA) while endorsing the stimulants as first line medications to treat ADHD also recommended the use of long-acting once-a-day medication for better efficacy, convenience and adherence.4


  1. The American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2017). What is ADHD? Retrived October 29, 2021, from
  2. Visanuyothin T, et al. Journal of Mental Health of Thailand 2013; 21(2)
  3. Vitharon B. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis and Management. J Psychiatr Assoc Thailand. 2012. 57(4) 373-386
  4. Sheik H, et al. A Review of Long-Acting Medications for ADHD in Canada. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009 Nov,18(4). 331-339