Stethoscope – heart diagnose


The major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) are high cholesterol, hypertension, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, and adiposity. Risk factors are treated in a stepwise approach to reach the ultimate treatment goals in apparently healthy people, patients with established ASCVD, and patients with diabetes mellitus.2


  1. WHO Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) 11 June 2021
  2. 2021 ESC Guidelines on CVD Prevention in Clinical Practice: Key Points. Visseren FL, Mach F, Smulders YM, et al.